Instructor(s): Prof. Charles Ladd; Dr. Lucy C. Jen
MIT Course Number: 1.361 / 1.032 / 1.366
As Taught In: Fall 2004
Level: Undergraduate / Graduate
Course Description
This class presents the application of principles of soil mechanics. It considers the following topics: the origin and nature of soils; soil classification; the effective stress principle; hydraulic conductivity and seepage; stressstrainstrength behavior of cohesionless and cohesive soils and application to lateral earth stresses; bearing capacity and slope stability; consolidation theory and settlement analysis; and laboratory and field methods for evaluation of soil properties in design practice.
Syllabus
Course Meeting Times
Lectures: 2 sessions / week, 1.5 hours / session
Definition
Technology that deals with soil (and rock) as an engineering material in civil engineering projects.
Examples of Application Areas
 Foundations
 “shallow” e.g., spread footings for buildings
 “deep” e.g., piles for offshore platform
 Earth Structures
 Compacted earth fill for dam
 Landfill for waste storage
 Slopes and Excavations
 Cut slopes for highway
 Excavation for subway
 Retaining Structures
 Slurry wall with tieback anchors
 Gravity retaining wall
 Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater
Types of Input Required to Solve Above Problems (for Soil)
 Geology and Exploration: General nature and extent of soils involved
 Soil Mechanics: Evaluation of Engineering Properties of soils and Theoretical Analyses to predict behavior of “structure”
 Feasibility: Economics, environmental, legal, practical
 Experience: Regarding what has happened in the past – successes and failures
 Field Evaluation: Measurements of actual performance to evaluate and possibly alter design during construction
 Engineering Judgment: Combined with above – final solution (increasing use of reliability analyses to “formalize” process)
What Makes Soil Mechanics Interesting and Challenging (CCL’s opinion)
Soil amongst most variable and difficult of all materials to understand and model
 Complex stressstrain (nonlinear, irreversible)
 Properties highly variable function of soil types and stress history
 Properties change with time, stress, environment, …
 Every site has different soil conditions – new challenge
 Soil “hidden” underground and data on small fraction of deposit
Emphasis on testing (in field and in lab) plus field monitoring
Outline
PART #  TOPICS 

I  Introduction Geotechnical / Geoenvironmental Engineering Conduct of Subject 
II  Nature of Soil Soil Composition, Index Properties, Soil Classification Soil Structure: ClayWater Forces, Interparticle Forces, Fabric Environmental Factors 
III  Dry Soil (Cohesionless)
Mohr Circle, Stress Paths, Elastic Stress Distribution StressStrain and Strength Behavior of Sand Rankine Earth Pressures, Infinite Slopes, Retaining Walls Bearing Capacity of Sands (Theory and Practice) Settlement of Sands 
IV  Saturated Soil (No or Steady State Flow)
Effective Stress Principle, Capillarity, Soil Suction One and TwoDimensional Flow Coefficient of Permeability (Theory and Practice) StressStrain and Strength Behavior of Clays Lateral Earth Pressures Slope Stability and Bearing Capacity 
V  Saturated Soil (Transient Flow)
Pore Pressure Parameters, Undrained Shear Behavior of Clays, and Strength Principles Consolidation of Cohesive Soils Evaluation of Stability (Loading vs. Unloading and Undrained vs. Drained Conditions) Estimation of Undrained Strength for Design Settlement Analyses for 2, 3D Loadings 
Calendar
LEC #  TOPICS  DEMONSTRATIONS  HOMEWORKS  HANDOUTS 

1  Introduction II1 (7) 
Clay Model Sand and Clay Samples 
Homework #1 out  Registration Form, Introduction, TOC Notes, II1 (Comp.) II2 (Structure) 
2  II1 (13) II2 (34) 
AL Device and Hydrometer  Mini problem out  Part II Mini Problem 
3  II2 (1112)  BBCElectrophoresis BBCOvendried plus Soaked, XRays 
III1 (Stresses)  
4  II2 (17+/)  BBCAdd Salt to Dispersed Clay  
5  II2 (19) III1 (6) III2 (1) 
Oed, DS and TX  Mini problem due  III2 (StressStrainStrength) 
6  III2 (8)  Homework #2 out Homework #1 due 

7  III2 (18)  III3 (Lateral Earth Pressure)  
8  III2 (20) Part II MP – 510 minutes Discussion III3 (5) 
Homework #3 out Homework #2 due 
III4 (Bearing Capacity)  
9  III3 (9) III4 (4) 

10  III4 (18)  Homework #4 out Homework #3 due 
III5 (Settlement)  
11  III4 (19) III5 (14) 
IV1 (s’ and Capillarity), Reading Assignment #2  
12  III5 (16) IV1 (6) 
Homework #5 out Homework #4 due 
IV2 (1D Flow) IV2A (2D Flow) 

13  IV2 (5) IV2A (1) 
IV3 (Permeability)  
14  IV2A (3) IV3 (3) 
IV4 (Clay behavior) ’03 MTE Exam and Solution 

15  IV3 (4) IV4 (3 w/Tide Problem) 
(MTE Review Session)  Homework #6 out Homework #5 due 

16  IV4 (10+)  (Midterm Exam)  IV5 (Lateral Earth Pressure)  
17  IV4 (12) IV5 (5) 
Homework #8 out Homework #6 due 
IV6 (Slope Stability) IV7 (Bearing Capacity) 

18  IV5 IV6 IV7 (3) 
Homework #9 out  
19  Return MTE and Solution plus Discussion V1 (6) 
Homework #8 due  
20  V1 (12)  Homework #10 out  V2 (Consolidation)  
21  V1 (Review UU + 16) V2 (4) 
Homework #9 due  V3 (Stability)  
22  V2 (9) V3 (6) 
Homework #11 out Homework #10 due 

23  V3 (11) V4 (7) 
PP, TV  ’03 FE and Solution  
24  V4 (25)  Homework #12 out Homework #11 due 
V5 (Settlement)  
25  V5 (8) 
Readings
Lambe, T. William, and Robert V. Whitman. Soil Mechanics. New York: Wiley, 1969. ISBN: 0471511927.
Reading Assignment Schedule No. 1
Read: Read mainly for general background and interest.
Study: Know all definitions, concepts, derivations of formulas, etc. This information will be covered in class and in Homework Problems and will form the main basis for materials on the exams.
CHAPTER #  READ OR STUDY  COMPLETED BY LEC # 

1, 2  Read  2 
3  Study  2 
4, 5, 6, 7  Read  3 
8  Study  4 
9, 10, 11, 12  Study  5 
13  Study  6 
14  Study  8 
Lecture Notes
The following set of lecture notes cover every major topic discussed in class.
Part II1 Soil Composition, Index Properties and Soil Classification (PDF – 1.6 MB)
Part II2 Soil Structure and Environmental Effects (PDF)
Part III1 Dry Soil: Stresses (PDF)
Part III2 StressStrainStrength Properties (PDF – 1.0 MB)
Part III3 Lateral Earth Pressures and Retaining Walls (PDF)
Part III4 Shallow Foundations on Sand: Bearing Capacity (PDF – 3.0 MB)
Part IV1 Effective Stress Principle and Capillarity (PDF)
Part IV2 OneDimensional Flow (PDF)
Part IV2A TwoDimensional Flow (PDF)
Part IV3 Coefficient of Permeability (PDF 1 of 2) (PDF 2 of 2 – 2.0 MB)
Part IV4 StressStrainStrength Behavior of Saturated Clays (PDF – 2.4 MB)
Part IV5 Lateral Earth Pressures (PDF)
Part IV6 Slope Stability (PDF)
Part IV7 Bearing Capacity (PDF)
Part V1 Introduction, Pore Pressure Parameters and Undrained Shear (PDF)
Part V2 Consolidation and Secondary Compression (PDF)
Part V3 Stability Evaluation: Cohesive Soils (PDF)
Part V4 Estimation of Design s_{u} in Practice (PDF – 2.0 MB)
Part V5 Settlement Analyses (PDF – 3.0 MB)
Study Materials
MEASURABLE QUANTITIES  COMMON AND SI UNITS 

Length  in x 25.40 = mm mil x 10^{3} = in ft x 0.3048 = m yd x 3 = ft Angstrom x 10^{4} = µm Angstrom x 0.1 = nm 
Area  hectare x 10^{4} =m^{2 }acre x 43560 = ft^{2} 
Volume  ft^{3} x 1728 = in.^{3} ft^{3} x 0.02832 = m^{3} yd^{3} x 0.7646 = m^{3} gal x 3.785 = liter = 10^{3}m^{3} ounce (U.S. fluid) x 29.57 = cm^{3} 
Mass  lb x 0.4536 = kg U.S. ton x 907.2 = kg 
Force [N = (kg) (g = 9.807 m^{2}/s)]  kip x 1000 = lbf bf x 4.448 = N U.S. ton x 2000 = lbf kgf x 9.81 = N metric ton x 9.81 = kN dyne x 10^{5} = N 
Unit Weight  γ_{w} = 1.00 TCM =g/cm^{3} γ_{w} = 62.4 pcf γ_{w} = 9.81 kN/m^{3} pcf x 0.1571 = kN/m^{3} 
Energy  joule (J) = N . m ft . lbf x 1.356 = J cal x 4.187 = J erg = dyne . cm erg x 10^{7} = J 
Pressure (Common)  atm = 760 mm of Hg atm x 1.0332 = kgf/cm^{2} psi x 144 = psf ksf x 1000 = psf TSF x 2000 = psf kgf/cm^{2} x 2048 = psf kgf/cm^{2} x 10 = TSM TSM x 204.8 = psf dyne/cm^{2} x 10^{6} = bar 
Pressure (Pa = N/m^{2})  bar = 100 kPa atm x 101.3 = kPa psi x 6.895 = kPa psf x 47.88 = Pa ksf x 47.88 = kPa TSF x 95.76 = kPa kgf/cm^{2} x 98.07 = kPa; x 2.048 = ksf TSM x 9.807 = kPa dyne/cm^{2} x 0.1 = Pa 
Coefficient of Permeability  cm/s x 864 = m/day cm/s x 2835 = ft/day ft/day x 0.3048 = m/day 
Coefficient of Consolidation  cm^{2}/s x 8.64 = m^{2}/day cm^{2}/s x 93.0 = ft^{2}/day in^{2}/min x 0.929 = m^{2}/day in^{2}/min x 10 = ft^{2}/day ft^{2}/day x 0.0929 = m^{2}/day 
Power  watt = J/s 
Temperature  ^{o}C/100 = (^{o}F – 32)/180 
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